Friday, May 22, 2020

What Really Caused the Recession in the United States in...

What really caused the recession in the United States in the 1980s? There was a great economic decline in the late 1970s and the beginning of the 1980s where there was a decline in trade and industrial activity. The 1980s was not a good time for the United States because the Regan Administration during this period began a 30-year period of financial deregulation. When president Regan was elected into office he promised the Americans that he would bring to an end the supply- sides economics. He argued that economic growth in the United States would be created effectively by lowering barriers for people to supply goods and services, as well as, invest. Therefore, his first move after he entered into office was to deregulate banks and oil. For that reason, there was a sharp expansion in the financial sector because there was also an expansion in the banking industry. There was an increase in the number of investment banks that went public; hence, bringing a very huge sum of the stake holder capital. This essay aims at looking at what caused factors led to the recession in the 1980s as the period saw many employees being arrested for financial fraud. The economy of the United States had gone through a tremendous change as even employees’ salaries had been increased by a 25 % increase even those who were not working for the investment banks (Ehrman, 143). The employees working for the investment banks saw a 150% increment in their salary (Cynamon, Steven Mark, 67). TheShow MoreRelatedEssay about 1980 s Double Dip Recession1407 Words   |  6 Pagesï » ¿1980’s Double Dip Recession Overview I. Introduction The 1980-1982 Double Dip recession brings up the curiosity of how the stagflation of the seventy’s affected the early eighty’s in which it caused the Fed and the USA congress to be switching back and forth from stimulus and restraints causing us to fall to our first recession. Then not till later we will see that Paul Voucher Chairman of the Board of Governors use heavy monetary restraints to control the inflation and ending the first recessionRead MoreThe Success Of The 1980 S1648 Words   |  7 PagesIntroduction The 1980’s were a period of many different innovations, studies, misfortunes, and explorations in the United States. This was a decade full of outspoken, optimistic and assertive Americans, this was a time for change. It was really a period that kind of refreshed the US and created a more confident country. There were many people that were trying to find a voice for themselves and realizing that people have a voice and it should be used and heard. Not only were thingsRead MoreThe Crisis Of 2008 And Its Effects On The Economy1361 Words   |  6 Pagescaribbean, because that s where they get most of their money. A financial crisis is applied in various situations where a large number of financial institutions, including banks and credit unions lose a large amount of money due to the economy. Throughout the years economist have come up with various arguments about how most financial crisis develop, and how they can be avoided in the future. You can still expect to see the financial crisis around the world often, but the really bad ones occur aboutRead MoreThe American Dream And The Mortgage Crisis Essay1743 Words   |  7 Pagesinstance, in the United States, the â€Å"American Dream† to own a home had a huge influence on the mortgage crisis in 2008. However, the economy at that time period had been inducing people to buy new home. Likewise, in Greece, the growing trend of corruption and bribery among the people played a major role in shattering its economy. As a consequence of the dreadful economy, Greek people are revolting against their government. While Greece is trying to recove r from its devastated state, the overrated AmericanRead MoreThe Economic Situation Of Latin America2306 Words   |  10 PagesMexico: Experiences in the 1980’s and challenges for the future, and in, Latin American countries underwent the worst economic recession during the 1980’s. The distribution of incomes after the 1940’s was a radical change because there was a huge gap between poverty level and the elite members of society. After that point in history it has continued the same way up until contemporary times. The considerable difference in the income inequality and the high poverty rates is what interested me and in particularlyRead MoreThe Economic Situation Of Latin America2506 Words   |  11 PagesMexico: Experiences in the 1980’s and challenges for the future, Latin American countries underwent the worst economic recession during the 1980’s. The distribution of incomes after the 1940’s was a radical change because there was a hu ge gap between poverty level and the elite members of society. After that point in history it has continued the same way up until contemporary times. The considerable difference in the income inequality and the high poverty rates is what interested me and in particularlyRead MoreThe Republic Of Dominican Republic1338 Words   |  6 Pagespeople started to become interested in what the country had to offer. Problems began to arise when people did not have many jobs to support themselves with. Economically the country was suffering but many things were experimented to increase the overall income of the people. Soon, agriculture was not the only source of income. The country relied on tourism, agriculture, and many other things to help them provide jobs to the people. Around the late 1980’s and 1990’s, the GDP fell by 5% and price inflationRead MoreThe Importance of Low Aggregate Volatility in the US Economy2087 Words   |  8 PagesSince the mid 1980’s the United States economy has been characterized by low inflation and low volatility in the market. The Former Fed chairman Ben Bernanke has even gone as far to say that the Fed has tamed the business cycle. Supporters of this idea believed that deregulation of the financial sector and controlling inflation would bring long expansions and limited recessions. What were the factors that caused this period of stable economic growth? This period of low volatility was due to bothRead MoreEssay on The Credit Crunch2520 Words   |  11 PagesIn the late 2000’s what was known as the â€Å"Global Recession† or â€Å"The Credit Crunch† occurred. The only financial crisis comparable to the recent 2008 United State recession was the Great Depression, which occurred in the 1930’s. The financial crisis of the late 2000’s resulted in the downfall of the largest financial institutions as measured by market capitalization vales. The situation created the need for governments and regulators to bailout most banks and caused dramatic drops in stock marketRead MoreInformation Management Essay1355 Words   |  6 Pagesthese machines quickly evolved from punch card machines to mainframes and spools of magnetic tape. This led to the introduction of the Structured Query Language (SQL) in the 1970s. During this time, IBM mainframe computers were widely used in business3. The evolution of file-sharing and the World Wide Web in the 1990s as a medium of information archiving and organization had the biggest impact on the information management and consulting field. The introduction of the internet created an almost

Thursday, May 7, 2020

Bpâ€Deepwater Horizon Case Study Ethics - 1883 Words

------------------------------------------------- BP—Deepwater Horizon Case Study INT1001 Study Skills Module Reading and Writing Skills—Summative Assignment Done by: Mew Hui Ying ------------------------------------------------- Date: 12 February 2013 ------------------------------------------------- Industry: Oil and Gas ------------------------------------------------- Company: British Petrol Contents Page No. 1. Introduction†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.3 2. The Case: 2.1 The Deepwater Horizon Explosion†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..4 2.2 Key Stakeholders and their Involvement†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦....5 2.2.1 Shareholders†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..5 2.2.2 Government†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦....5 2.2.3 Fishermen,†¦show more content†¦The government was also responsible for activating coast guards and the military in its response to the spill. Hence, the role of the US government here is crucial as a â€Å"parent† to ensure that BP acts in the welfare of its citizens. 2.2.3 Fishermen, Activists and Environmentalists With the huge impact of the oil spill on marine life and coastal regions, fishing and tourism industries of the places affected in the Gulf Coast severely declined. In the fishing industry, the incident led to an approximate $2.5 billion loss, while tourist industries experienced a loss of a predicted $23 billion (Jarvis, 2010). In addition, the moratorium placed on deep water drilling left 58,000 workers unemployed (ibid). In its Annual General Meeting in 2011, BP faced protests against BP’s executive’s remunerations and voiced their injustice (Webb amp; McVeigh, 2011). Facebook pages such as â€Å"Boycott BP† and RIP Spongebob, who died in an oil spill cause of BP† have been set up by activists, and have garnered 847,730 and 468,157 likes respectively (Jarvis, 2010). Hence, the impacts on these stakeholders have varying degrees, but are nonetheless affected one way or another by BP’s mistake. 2.3 Ethics and Values According to BP’s Code of Conduct, BP †commits to â€Å"excellence and to the disciplined management of our operations† (BP, 2013a). In thisShow MoreRelatedBp Management, Ethical And Social Behavior1114 Words   |  5 PagesIn the month of April 2010, Deepwater Horizon exploded, killing 11 workers and releasing oil from the well into an ocean. This paper will discuss BP management, ethical and social behavior. BP along with a few of its partners Transocean and Halliburton was involved in the gulf oil spill. The explosion of the drilling rig Deepwater Horizon was the root cause of the oil spill. This paper will focus on BP organization behavioral issues that caused the economic, environmental, and human losses. The researchRead MoreStrategic And Value Of Operations Management1599 Words   |  7 Pagesnumerous other areas and sectors (e.g. company-wide) in order to meet the needs of the company, customers, shareholders and stakeholders. This case study will briefly explore the importance of managing activities in today’s modern operations, and why it is critical to understand the strategic and value of operations management. We will examine the British Petroleum (BP) oil spill that occurred out in the Gulf of Mexico in April of 2010. The oil spill not only stirred many controversies but also affectedRead MoreBp Deep Water Horizontal Explosion3148 Words   |  13 PagesINTRODUCTION BP originated from a British petroleum company founded in 1909. After experiencing crises during the 1980s-1990s, the company started to have a cost cutting culture. During mid-1990s, with an aggressive growth strategy, BP started to grow and reposition. After BP merged with Amoco in 1998, John Browne started to serve as chief executive until May 2007. Browne repositioned BP as a â€Å"green† oil company after he took over and practiced the model of organizational decision-making strategyRead MoreThe Ethical Philosophy Of The United States1432 Words   |  6 Pages2015, p. 100). British Petroleum validated utilitarianism values for the Deepwater Horizon rig at the Macondo oil prospect in the Mississippi Canyon in the continental shelf (â€Å" ¬Deepwater†, 2015). Demonstrating moral idealism, â€Å"Toyota Motor Corporation’s core principle is to contribute to society and the economy by producing high-quality products and services† (Kerin et al., 2015). Business ethics are defined as: The study of proper business policies and practices regarding potentially controversialRead MoreBP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Essay1912 Words   |  8 PagesBuildup to the BP-Oil Spill The eventual buildup to the BP oil spill started during the Bush Administration. The Bush Administrations oil demand and antigovernment sensibility soiled the Minerals Management Service (MMS), the agency charged with regulating offshore drilling. Vice President Dick Cheney had presided over the weakening of drilling regulations, including the exclusion of remote-shut-off switches which might have prevented the disaster. Soon, MMS was nothing but a shell of its formerRead MoreBp Oil Spillage : British Petroleum Company1690 Words   |  7 PagesThe BP Oil Spillage British Petroleum Company (BP) is among the major international gas and oil companies in the world. It provides clients with energy for light and heat, fuel for transportation, lubricants, and other petrochemical products that are used in manufacturing various items. The company’s primary goal is to deliver value to its customers by utilizing its distinctive capabilities, managing the quality of its portfolio, and setting clear goals. However, an unprecedented explosion of BPRead MoreBp And The Gulf Of Mexico Oil Spill Case Study3246 Words   |  13 Pages BP and the Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill Case Study Tamatha French Management 6000 Hawaii Pacific University â€Æ' Introduction and Background On April 20, 2010, the petroleum industry suffered the largest maritime disaster oil spill in its history known as the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. The Deepwater Horizon oil rig that had been working on a well for BP in the Gulf exploded and went up in flames. Subsequently, massive amounts of oil spilled out into the water, threatening the marine life andRead MoreBp Sustainability Essay28986 Words   |  116 PagesSustainability Review 2010 bp.com/sustainability 2 A letter from our group chief executive / 4 How BP is changing 6 Gulf of Mexico oil spill / 14 How we operate / 22 Energy future 30 Safety / 34 Environment / 38 Society Within hours of the Deepwater Horizon accident, BP teams were working to stop the leak. We also acted to minimize the spill’s impact on the environment by containing, removing and dispersing oil offshore, protecting the shoreline and cleaning up oil that came ashore. And weRead MoreThe Deepwater Horizon Oil Rig Exploded1423 Words   |  6 PagesOn April 20, 2010, the Deepwater Horizon oil rig exploded. It was positioned over the Macondo oil well when a burst of natural gas broke through the concrete core that had been used to seal off the oil well for later use. Once released by the fractured core the gas made its way up the riser and onto the platform, where it ignited killing eleven workers and injuring seventeen others. The highest-ranking BP supervisors on board the oil rig known as â€Å"Well site leaders† observed indications that theRead MoreEssay on Ethics in the Workplace - Bp Oil Spill1729 Words   |  7 PagesEthics in the Workplace Case Study: BP Oil Spi ll On April 20, 2010 off the Gulf of Mexico, there was a blowout of the Macondo well which is owned by British Petroleum also known as BP. When the blowout took place it got immediate media attention because aspects of the event were known over the world. Within events transpiring it was discovered how limited the resources and reaction to the disaster was going to be. This paper will detail aspects of the event from symptoms of the problem, the root

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Ethical Leadership †Analysis Free Essays

Reader also used the â€Å"waiter rule† to explain that a lot can be said about a person’s character by the way they treat the waiter, which is much like the golden rule, treat others as you wish to be treated. This piece of advice relates to the business world, because professionals should respect one another, tell the truth, and conduct themselves in an ethical manner. Furthermore, Reader discussed the leadership and ethical leadership. We will write a custom essay sample on Ethical Leadership – Analysis or any similar topic only for you Order Now He described leadership as someone who inspires people to achieve a goal. He elaborated on this concept by stating that ethical leadership is when a person leads y Influencing their followers and use Input from the followers to shape goals and purposes. Moreover, an ethical leader should be consistent In both words and actions, lead by example, and can be referred to as a role model. These ethical leaders are extremely Important to employees. Reader shared some astounding statistics as to why employees need role models: 56% of employees personally observed misconduct and out of those who observed it, 42% did not report it. This shows that the tone at the top is extremely important in firms. If the management is more likely to behave unethically, then this attitude trickles down and negatively effects the ethical values of everyone in the company. In addition, he discussed how peer commitment is important. For example, most times, an employee will look to see what colleagues are doing in order to make a decision. This information relates to me professionally because I will be starting my career as an auditor soon and the attitudes and ethical culture of the company and my colleagues will definitely affect how I perform my Job. Reader also discussed how a leader can promote and ethical culture. These ten pieces of advice would definitely help me in a professional setting because at one mint I will be leading a group of people on an audit engagement. The first piece of advice is to walk the walk, which means that the leader needs to lead by example. Next, he states that the leader should keep people in the loop. This means that the leader needs to involve the employees and inform them on various changes and adjustments happening in the organization. Reader suggests that the leader should also encourage thoughtful dissent and show the employees that he/she truly cares. Furthermore, Reader states that in order to promote and ethical culture, the leader would not sweep problems under the rug, but should deal with each problem In an ethical manner. In Dalton, the leader should celebrate the successes In the organization and be fair to all employees. Also, the leader should make ethics a priority. Often times In the professional world, leaders behave ethically but do not truly make ethics a priority. Although sometimes difficult, leaders need to make tough the leader should â€Å"get the right people eon the bus and keep them,† which means that the leader should find employees that share the same ethical values and do whatever is possible to keep them on board. Overall, I think Reader provided some great examples and advice on ethics and ethical leadership. All of the examples and advice he discussed relate to a professional environment and especially auditing. Auditors do not have the best reputation because of unethical behaviors by professionals, like Arthur Andersen, in the past. Often times the auditing profession can really challenge and test an individual’s ethical and moral compass. However, Reader’s speech reminded me what I need do to make sure I maintain ethical relationships and become an ethical leader in my audit career. How to cite Ethical Leadership – Analysis, Essays

Sunday, April 26, 2020

Managing and Developing a Small Business What do Leaders really do

Introduction Leaders and managers of an organization play incredible roles in the endeavour to ensure that organizations succeed in attaining their aims and objectives, as stipulated in their strategic plans. A dominant argument among scholars is that, leaders can also serve the roles of the managers.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Managing and Developing a Small Business: What do Leaders really do? specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More On the other hand, other scholars argue that, leaders cannot act as managers of an organization. Consequently, there is unresolved debate whether managers can be leaders and the vice versa. For instance, Kotter posits, â€Å"leadership and management are two distinctive and complementary systems of action† (1990, p.103). This argument implies that, leadership and management have two differing traits and functions within an organization. The main question remains: which of the two is more appropriate for being given more consideration to enhance better success of an organization? Increasing body of literature places a strong argument that, the two are significant towards this end, especially when the volatilities and complexities of the modern day organizations’ operation environment are considered. From this position, this paper seeks to address the two aspects, which may immensely enhance the performance and hence the success of an organization. This goal is achieved through conducting a summary of Kotter’s article appearing on the journal of Harvard Business Review in 1990 titled: â€Å"what leaders really do†, and then articulating it with the existing body of literature on the position of leadership and management in enhancing success of an organization. Difference between management and leadership Management entails dealing ardently with organizational complexity. According to Brungardt (1996), â€Å"management controls or dire cts people or resources in a group according to principles or values that have already been established† (p.83).Advertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the absence of cute organizational management strategies, complex business establishments may get chaotic in numerous ways hence creating the risks to the existence of the business establishment in question. In this context, Kotter (1990) laments that, â€Å"good management brings a degree of order and consistency to key dimensions like the quality and profitability of products† (p.104). On the other hand, leadership entails putting forth new visions and or directions for people working within an organization. In the journey towards achievement of this vision and direction, the leader work principally as the spearhead. This implies that leadership is all about deploying appropriate measures to deal cutely with organ izational change. Leadership is the tool that can be deployed, within an organization, to help it deal proactively with various factors that make conducting business a challenge. Such factors includes technological sophistication, volatility of the markets, increased international competitions, rapidly varying demographic characteristics, changing capital markets characteristics coupled with deregulation of capital markets among other factors. Consequently, as management scholars would suggest, doing what was effective yesterday and/or at ten percent better, can help in improvement of organizational performance. In case of leadership, this scenario is no longer a formula for realizing organizational success. Amid the cited functions of management in enhancing organizational success, it is necessary to point out that when the two are employed independently in an organization, differing results are produced.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Managing and Developi ng a Small Business: What do Leaders really do? specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More When management is applied without leadership, incredible results are obtained in control of resources in a manner that ensures that, the status quo is maintained and/or facilitates achievement of aims, goals, and objectives in accordance to an initially re-established plan. On the other hand, when leadership is applied alone, it â€Å"sets a direction or vision that others follow, without considering too much how the new direction is going to be achieved† (Rost Baker 2000, p.9). However, when both are applied, both the management of resources and setting a new direction of the organization, in the future world of uncertainty, are realized. Budgeting and planning are two plausible tools for ensuring that complexity is well managed by organizations. This accomplished through â€Å"setting targets or goals for the future, establishing detailed step s for achieving those targets and then allocating resources to accomplish the plans† (Kotter 1990, p.104). Arguably, this aspect is different with leadership. Leadership is initiated by direction setting. It entangles development of a vision through generation of wider perspective of future, coupled with adopting strategies that are critical in ensuring production of changes, which are vital in the achievement of the vision. Another striking difference is that, in case of management, the capacity for achieving the preset plans is dependent on strategies for staffing coupled with the power of organizing deployed by the organization. It is in this end that job design, job delegation, staff selection and recruitment and organizational communication becomes significant. On the other hand, as Kotter (1990) reckons, â€Å"the equivalent leadership activity is aligning people† (p.104).Advertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It encompasses putting in place mechanisms of enhancing clear communication of the new directions for adoption to ensure the realization of the aims, goals and objectives of the organization in the near future to all stakeholders who commit themselves and accept being guided by the established direction. Additionally, from the perspectives of management, plans are achieved through designing mechanisms of the solution to problems coupled with controlling them, which is opposed to leadership whereby visions are achieved through inspiration and ensuring that the team that is responsible for the realization of the vision is proactively motivated. Critical scrutiny of the differences between management and leadership evidences traits of a leader. Therefore, they also shed light on what leaders needs to do on a daily basis. Setting direction One of the fundamental roles of leadership is to set the organizational direction, which is necessary in the endeavour to attain the subtle objective of leadership: to produce change. However, setting of direction should not get confused with planning. According to Kotter (1990), planning entails â€Å"a management process which is deductive in nature and designed to produce orderly results, not change† (p.104). This implies that setting of direction is ideally inductive in its nature. For the leaders to be able to set appropriate direction, they garner an immense data and then attempt to derive patterns and linkages. Most importantly, they use the data gathered to determine relationships. This move is critical in making them able to explain things. In the context of leadership roles in an organization, setting of direction yields strategies coupled with visions, as opposed to plans. For the leaders to have the capacity to achieve commendable organizational direction, hard work, often entailing taking risks, is required because setting of direction is not achieved through magic. Kotter is also inclined to this line of tho ught when he argues that â€Å" people who articulate visions are not magicians but broad based strategic thinkers who are willing to take risks† (1990, p.105). However, it is crucial to note that strategies and visions do not necessary deserve to be brilliantly innovative. Indeed, many of the cute visions are not. Aligning people Upon the setting of the desired direction, the next objective of leadership is to see people moving according to the stipulated vision and strategies. In many organizations, people are normally tied amongst themselves by â€Å"their work, systems of management, technology, and hierarchy systems† (Kotter 1990 p.105). Consequently, in the endeavour of leadership to play its chief function of bringing about change, such linkages expose some challenges. This means that for people to move collectively in accordance to the strategies and visions, a leader aligns them, as opposed to organizing them. In this end, Kotter laments, â€Å"To executives who are overeducated in management, the idea of moving people in the same direction appears to be an organizational problem† (1990, p.105). From this dimension, it becomes crucial to argue that the challenge of aligning people is more of communication problem as opposed to design challenge. For a leader to be able to align people well to the visions and the strategies, he or she needs to talk much more than a manager would, in order to have people organized in accordance to the stipulated organizational plans (Hiebert Klatt 2000, p.98). The people that a leader must establish an ardent communication with include peer staff members, subordinates, bosses, and officials of the government, while not negating the consumers. Other relevant parties that the leader needs to talk to entails all those other organizational stakeholders who have the capacity to hinder or aid in the visions and strategies implementation. By enhancing ardent communication, a leader is able to empower all p eople dependent on his or her vision or strategies to achieve their targets, hence enhancing the performance of an organization coupled with its success. Motivating people In the attempt to induce change, a leader encounters myriads of impediments. Such impediments entangle development of the capacity to inculcate the need to develop an energized code of behaviours among the people who are being led. Motivation serves to make the people develop the requisite energy demanded to make people overcome various obstacles in the path of attempting to realize the visions and strategies of change. Kotter amplifies this argument when he comments, â€Å"Achieving grand visions always requires an occasional burst of energy† (1990, p.107). In comparison to controlling, motivation does not push people to the desired direction. Rather, it does it through satisfaction of essential human needs, creation of a feeling of self-belonging, amplification of self-esteem of people and recognition amo ng other things. Leaders can motivate people in a variety of ways. One of the chief ways of doing this motivation is by articulating people with the organizational vision â€Å"in a manner that stresses the value of the audience they are addressing† (Kotter 1990, p.108). Another way is to aid people to make decisions on how to attain the vision of the organization. This may be done by making provisions of feedback, coaching, and even acting as role models. Where the leader recognizes that people are succeeding in achieving the visions and strategies, he or she does not hesitate to reward the success ardently. This makes the work done by all people in the organization become internally motivating. Leadership culture For an organization to succeed in the competitive environment, it is indispensable for executives to posses both leadership and management attributes. In fact, â€Å"some companies have consistently demonstrated an ability to develop people into outstanding leader -manager† (Kotter 1990, p.107). In the process of development of leadership culture in an organization, the first step is to recruit people who have leadership potential. The next step is to ensure that their leadership career is appropriately monitored. The goal is to ensure that all people charged with leadership duties are able to share numerous career experiences amongst themselves. Developing leadership For people to develop leadership experiences, it is significant that a leader in charge creates an environment that is dominated by challenging decision-making opportunities. Upon determination of the people and the necessary skills that need development, leaders normally spend a significant fraction of their time planning the mechanisms that they are going to utilize in order to ensure that the skills are developed in a manner that would advantage the organization in future (Northouse 2006, p.68; Schein 2004, 112). Sometimes, this development is accomplished through plann ing. This sort of planning is essentially formal or through a development process, that has high potential attributes: informal. However, in any of these ways â€Å"the key ingredient appears to be an intelligent assessment of what is feasible development opportunity fit for each candidate† (Kotter 1990, p.111). This way, young leader becomes prepared to assume leadership roles for both small and medium sized organization. Institutionalization of leadership culture In an attempt to foster institutionalization of leadership culture within an organization, many organizational leadership scholars contend that a means of rewarding leaders who have aided in development of leadership traits among the workforce is vital. However, â€Å"this is not done as part of formal compensation or bonus formula, simply because it is so difficult to measure such achievements with precision† (p.111). Arguably, in case people, in the top realm of organizational leadership, are informed that they could be promoted based on their capacity to develop leadership, even those who belief that leadership is not possible to develop may look for ways in which it can be nurtured. This way, it becomes possible to inculcate a corporate culture that can incredibly aid in building an immensely strong leadership culture, coupled with attempts to create it. This observation is largely consistent with Kotter (1990) argument that, â€Å"institutionalizing a leadership-centred culture is the ultimate act of leadership† (p.111). This means that, what leaders actually need to do is to ensure that leadership culture is developed from the top most to bottom most people, in the organizational hierarchical order. Conclusion Organizational leaders play vital roles in ensuring that organizations succeed in achieving their goals, aims, and objectives. It is crucial for people aspiring to become leader to understand the chief things that leaders do on a daily basis. It is from this perspect ive that the paper found it essential to scrutinize what leaders certainly do. After conducting a summary of the of Kotter’s article, â€Å"What Leaders Really Do† and conducting an intensive introspection of existing literature of the role of leadership in enhancing success of an organization, the paper discussed setting direction, motivation, aligning people, creating an environment where leadership culture can thrive, developing leadership, and institutionalization of leadership culture, as the key things Reference List Brungardt, C 1996, ‘The making of leaders: A review of the research in leadership development and education’, The Journal of Leadership Studies, vol. 3 no.3, pp 81–95. Hiebert, M Klatt, B 2000, The Encyclopedia of Leadership: A Practical Guide to Popular Leadership Theories and Techniques, McGraw Hill, New York. Kotter, J 1990, ‘What leaders really do’, Harvard Business Review, vol.1 no. 1, pp 103-111. Northouse, P 2 006, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks. Rost, J Baker, R 2000, ‘Leadership education in colleges: Toward a 21st century paradigm’, The Journal of Leadership Studies, vol. 7 no.1, pp 3–12. Schein, E 2004, Organizational Culture and Leadership, Jossey Bass, San Francisco. This report on Managing and Developing a Small Business: What do Leaders really do? was written and submitted by user Bennett Carver to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Thursday, March 19, 2020

Never Underestimate Chekhovs Gun

Never Underestimate Chekhovs Gun Known as one of the greatest short story writers in history, Anton Pavlovich Chekhov, Russian physician, playwright and short-story writer once wrote in a letter to a friend, Medicine is my lawful wife and literature is my mistress. Also among his letters is the principle now referred to as Chekhovs gun- a writing concept he brought up multiple times throughout his extensive correspondence.This version of it is noted in Bill Valentines Chekhov: The Silent Voice of Freedom:Remove everything that has no relevance to the story. If you say in the first chapter that there is a rifle hanging on the wall, in the second or third chapter it absolutely must go off. If its not going to be fired, it shouldnt be hanging there.Chekhov: The Silent Voice of FreedomIn a letter to Aleksandr Semenovich Lazarev (pseudonym of A. S. Gruzinsky) written on November 1, 1889, Chekhov wrote, One must never place a loaded rifle on the stage if it isnt going to go off. Its wrong to make promises you dont mean to keep.So, what is Chekovs gun?Chekovs gun is the concept that a writers focus on objects, details or locations should have future significance in the story. This doesnt mean that every single object needs to have significance, however. It just means that if you point it out and encourage your readers mind to dwell on it, there should be a reason for doing so. Now Novel explains it like this:The lesson behind Chekhovs gun is that your story should be cohesive. Each part should contribute to the whole in a way that makes sense. It does not mean that every single plot point of your story must be hugely significant. Some story elements function to create mood or describe the setting. Yet each part of your story should correspond to the whole in at least a tangential way.Nownovel.comFor example, if your character has a limp, there should be a backstory that is significant for character building. Dont simply give him a limp and not explain to your reader why he has it. Another example wou ld be focusing on and describing a characters vivid dreams. Unless something significant will happen in one of those dreams that affects the characters choices further in the plot, or unless youre using it to foreshadow a future event, dont focus your writing on the dreams.Unless your characters vivid dreams play a role in the plot, dont focus on describing them. Photo by Johannes Plenio on Unsplash.Does it mean that every single detail needs to be significant?Chekov wasnt saying that every detail you include needs to be significant to the storyline. There are obviously times when youll describe a location with details that create setting and mood, or write characters who engage in small talk that isnt some great plot twist.Heres an example:Lets say youre writing a scene in which a character smokes a pipe. That pipe could simply be part of your choice in characterization and doesnt necessarily need to hold any special significance beyond that. However, if you focus your writing on t he details of that pipe, or use an entire page or more to describe how your character languidly smokes it, that pipe should be significant to the story. It should hold special significance in your characters past or future.Another example is if two of your characters are leaning in for a passionate kiss and interrupted by a loud alarm that goes off nearby, youve allowed that alarm to affect the plot. In doing so, you need to provide further explanation at some point before the end as to why youve done this. Is the alarm perhaps a metaphor warning the character that the kiss would lead to a toxic relationship? Did something happen down the street that would later affect the characters in some significant way beyond interrupting a romantic moment?Chekovs gun on televisionFans of the hit ABC show Lost, which first aired on September 22, 2004, understand firsthand how important Chekovs gun is, whether on page, stage, or screen. After the final episode, which aired on May 23, 2010, many fans experienced feelings ranging from disappointment to disbelief to outright anger. For six years, they had been taken on a wild, engrossing science fiction journey involving time travel, parallel universes, ancient civilizations, and scientific experiments, only to be left at the end with multiple questions still unanswered. Much of this confusion had to do with the shows writers offering up lots of seemingly significant objects, characters, and events- only to leave those elements unexplained by the end.For example, this reviewer on Den of Geek writes:My main fear was that the writers themselves never knew [what was going on], and had been content to roll along, episode to episode, season to season, chucking out twists hither and thither without any creative masterplan to guide them. I could imagine the scene in the writers room: Hey, this new twistll be cool. It makes absolutely no sense whatsoever, and I dont know how well write ourselves out of it, but people will be surprise d, and thats the main thing, isnt it? If viewers start to question how ridiculous it is, well just come up with something even more messed up and unbelievable to distract them from the first thing, and then repeat that formula until we get cancelled, or we all just decide to violently murder each other using ball-point pens.Den of GeekThis review is a good example of why readers are frustrated when authors point to seemingly significant things that turn out to be not so important after all. When audiences invest their time, energy, and emotions into a work- whether that be a book, TV series, movie, or play- they dont what to feel like their time is wasted. So, if youre going to have a gun in the first act, make sure its shot by the end of the third act. Otherwise, dont point out the gun at all.A screenshot of Mr. Echo and the smoke monster from Lost, a show often faulted for not following the rules of Chekovs Gun.When Chekovs gun is actually a Red HerringMystery, thriller, and crime novelists use a device known as a Red Herring to throw the reader off track for a greater surprise effect when the big reveal occurs. According to LiteraryDevices.net, a good example of a Red Herring in a popular work is the character of Bishop Aringarosa in Dan Browns novel Da Vinci Code:Bishop Aringarosa serves as an example of a red herring throughout the novel. The character is presented in such a way that the readers suspect him to be the mastermind of the whole conspiracy in the church.Later, it is revealed that he is innocent. This example of a red herring in the novel distracts the readers from who the real bad guy is, and thus adds to the mystery of the story. Interestingly, the Italian surname of the bishop Aringarosa translates in English as red herring.LiteraryDevices.netThe differences between foreshadowing and Chekovs gunLets go back to Chekhovs gun and re-examine what he said about it. Basically, if you mention a gun in chapter one, by the end of the novel, that gun needs to be shot. With this explanation in mind, you might recognize another often-used literary device that has a similar idea- foreshadowing.Foreshadowing, on the other hand, is a literary device that involves using words, phrases, objects, or characters to hint to the reader about what will happen later in the story. However, the important thing to note about foreshadowing is it is only a small hint- barely perceptible so as not to give away too much of the storyline. Chekovs gun is drawing attention to something in a more obvious way. So, the difference lies in the degree to which you emphasize the object, person, or ability.Essentially, think of Chekovs gun as a promise between you (the writer) and your readers that this thing youre mentioning will have significance at some point in the story. Its a pledge.Foreshadowing is a hint, and perhaps one that is so subtle that your reader wont notice it until the final reveal happens and all the plot twists have taken place.Tips for wr iters to apply Chekovs gun to your own writingIf youve been adequately convinced that Chekovs gun makes sense, here are a few tips to apply this same principle to your own writing.Create a scene list, containing each scenes plot points, character goals, action to advance the plot, and action to increase the tension. This article on 8 ways to create a scene list is a great resource that details the exact steps to take to make a scene list happen. Having a scene list will help you determine if there are unnecessary elements that were included in one chapter and dont return in future chapters as significant plot points.Read through your draft of each chapter and make sure that any focus youve given to objects, characters, or traits is fleshed out in future chapters.Above all, keep the unspoken promise to your reader that in exchange for their time and emotions, you wont lead them down a dead-end path in any part of your storytelling.

Monday, March 2, 2020

State Names and Abbreviations

State Names and Abbreviations State Names and Abbreviations State Names and Abbreviations By Mark Nichol How should you treat references to states? The form depends on which style guide you adhere to and why the state is being referenced. Details about how to refer to states follow. The Chicago Manual of Style and The Associated Press Stylebook agree on one thing: When referring to a state on its own, spell the state name out (â€Å"California became a state in 1850†). However, when referring to a city and the state in which it is located, although Chicago recommends retaining the spelled-out version of the state name (â€Å"San Diego, California†), AP style calls for abbreviating the state name (â€Å"San Diego, Calif.†) if it consists of more than six letters. (Chicago also has abbreviations if you insist, but they don’t always match AP’s style.) The AP style abbreviations arbitrarily range in length from two to six letters, and all two-word names are abbreviated with the initials, such as N.Y. for â€Å"New York† with the exception of West Virginia’s abbreviation, which for some reason is rendered W.Va. (Note that AP style omits state names for a specified list of cities considered familiar enough that the state in which they are located need not be mentioned.) In headlines, the periods are omitted. However, when giving an address, or in tables or other uses in which space is limited, use the US Postal Service’s symbol system, which consists of a two-letter abbreviation in which both letters are always capitalized and no periods are used (for example, NY for â€Å"New York†). Other style handbooks have their own guidelines, so, if you are writing or editing for a particularly company as a staff member or a freelancer, determine which resource is considered the authority on state abbreviation. Note, too, that abbreviation of country names is rare and not recommended. US and UK are frequently used as nouns in informal contexts, but the names should be spelled out except as adjectives â€Å"the US response,† for example, or â€Å"the UK’s role† and Chicago recommends omitting periods in these cases, as is advised for all capitalized abbreviations. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Style category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:Creative Writing 101English Grammar 101: Verb Mood30 Words for Small Amounts

Saturday, February 15, 2020

Images of an "Oriental Other" Assignment

Images of an "Oriental Other" - Assignment Example But tools have changed, and nowadays Western foreign policy is expressed through mass culture and Orientalism is widely presented in mass media production (Nicha 2012). The image of â€Å"Oriental Others† discussed in this essay is the image of Persian Prince, which was presented in 2010 in American movie Prince of Persia: The Sands of Time. The part of the Prince is played by a famous American actor Jake Gyllenhaal and therefore, Persian Prince looks more like a White, Western man, a â€Å"hot†, protagonist and American superhero, as Jehanzeb Dar puts it (Dar 2010). The orientalism of the discussed image is illustrated well through a screen shot from the movie. On this picture Prince fights and defeats an antagonistic personage, a one of the hirelings Assassins, who were hired by â€Å"evil side† to kill Prince. It’s typical in modern American mass culture that the Orient got associated with mysticism, barbarism, despotism, imagination and violence, â€Å"in other words, the opposite to the world of Western Europe†, as West imagines itself (Nicha 2012). Despite that Jake Gyllenhaal visually looks more like American man than like Persian one, the whole plot of the movie and characters are presented in stereotypical way. First of all, there’s a lot of violence in a movie, a lot of fights, and on this particularly picture where Prince fights Assassin, both of them are cold steel armed with weapons traditionally associated with bloodshed. Edward Said says, it’s typical when Oriental Others are shown as people who like violence and understands only force, so â€Å"civilized people† have no other choice but to deal with them using a military force. However, the true reason such image is justification of U.S. military intervention on Middle East, and behind the p owerful myths about how Arabs’ are originally threatening for Americans, true geopolitical